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Charts which display the number of defects per sample in case of a constant sample size.
A measure, both graphically and numerically, of a process or product to meet a customers requirements. Capability is typically expressed in Z, DPMO, or Cpk.
The number of units (at the right quality level) that a process can produce within a given time period. This is generally measured in absolute terms (e.g. 100,000 tonnes per month) or in percentage terms (e.g. working at 80% of capacity - actual production relative to potential capacity).
The principle that every change implies the operation of a cause.
That which produces an effect or brings about a change (the x)
Cause & Effect diagram
Cause & Effect diagram = Oorzaak en gevolg diagram. Is een overzicht waar alle (mogelijke) oorzaken van een bepaalde gebeurtenis in worden weergegeven. Dit gebeurt door elke oorzaak in weer in aantal suboorzaken op te delen en zo verder, totdat grondoorzaken duidelijk zijn.
Cause and Effect diagram
This is a visual analytical tool (sometimes called a Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram) that displays the grouped causes (fish bones) that contribute to a problem (the head of the fish). It is a very useful for illustrating the combination of factors that contribute to a problem.
Center Line
The line on a statistical process control chart which represents the characteristic's central tendency.
Central Limit Theorem
The means of samples from a population will tend to be normally distributed around the true population mean.
Central Tendancy
Numerical average, e.g. mean, median, and mode; center line on a statistical process control chart.
Een Champion is iemand van het senior management en rapporteert aan de directie van een onderneming. De Champion zorgt ervoor dat er op het hoogste niveau overzicht isover alle Six Sigma projecten en zorgt dat voldoende prioriteit wordt gegeven aan de diverse Six sigma projecten. De Champion is eindverantwoordelijk voor de snelle en succesvolle uitrol van Six Sigma binnen een organisatie.
A definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
Chi Square Test
This is an quantitative analytical tool that is used to compare discrete samples of data to determine whether they are significantly different e.g. performance of Plant X versus Plant Y, last weeks performance against this weeks. The Chi Square test is used to test homogenity and independence. It can be used to test "Goodness of Fit." The test generally sets out hypotheses and then tests whether the groups of data are homogeneous or independent.
Chi-Square (Chi2)
The test statistic that is used for testing independence of discrete data in a contingency table.
Common Causes
Common causes are normal or natural variations in process outputs that are due random variation only. No corrective action is necessary when output variations are due to common causes. Normal process improvement procedures must used to identify the root cause of the random variation in the process output.
De mate waarin een systeem of component, een ontwerp heeft dat moeilijk te begrijpen is. Er zijn bij denken over complexiteit m.b.t. Lean Six Sigmadrie hoofdregels gedefinieerd. (1) Elimineer complexiteit waar klanten niet voor willen betalen. (2) Maak winst aan de complexiteit waar klanten wel voor willen betalen (3) Minimaliseer de kosten van de complexiteit die je levert. Dit complexiteit- denken wordt uitgebreid besproken in het boek 'Conquering Complexity in Your Business' door Michael L. George en Stephen A. Wilson.
Confidence Interval
The width of the confidence around an estimate of a population parameter, such as xbar or s, that provides an interval believed to contain the value of that parameter. For example, if an interval-estimation procedure provides intervals such that 95% of the intervals formed using the procedure will include the population parameter, the interval estimate is constructed at the 95% confidence level. In sampling formula the confidence interval is usually referred to as Δ (delta). The interval is measures in the same units used to describe the population parameter. For example, if we are measuring the average cycle time in days then the confidence interval will be represented in xbar, +/- days.
Confidence Level
The probability that a random variable x lies within a defined interval.
Confidence Limits
The two values that define the confidence interval.
Allowing two or more variables to vary together so that it is impossible to separate their unique effects.
Any person whose positive or negative reactions relative to the project could cause the the project to succeed or fail.
Consumer's Risk
Probability of accepting a lot when, in fact, the lot should have been rejected. Also referred to as Beta risk (β)
Continuous data
Continuous data is measured on a scale or continuum and is capable of being infinitely subdivided (e.g. 1.1, 1.11, 1.111) It is contrasted to discrete data which can only be into discrete elements (e.g. Yes or No). It is important to recognize the difference between continuous and discrete data when conducting statistical analysis.
Continuous Response
A response / output that can be taken for any value within a set of limits. i.e.: A persons weight is a continuous measure.
Control Chart
A graphical rendition of a characteristic's performance across time in relation to its natural limits and central tendency.
Control Specifications
Specifications called for by the product being manufactured.
Conversion table
This is a table that is used in six sigma to translate a number of Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) into a sigma value. 3.4 DPMO converts to six sigma. 230 DPMO converts to 5 sigma. Six Sigma conversion tables are available in most six sigma books.
CoPQ - Cost of Poor Quality
This is a measure of the financial cost of poor quality in a process. Project teams study the impact of internal and external process problems and then quantify that impact. Typical contributors to the cost of poor quality are low value added activities (such as rework, quality inspections, expediting, unnecessary hand-offs) and customer dissatisfaction ( such as lost orders, returns, late payments). CoPQ is a good measure to include in a project business case.
Core Process
Core processes are defined as a series of activities which cross functional boundaries and create the end product or service that is delivered to our external customers.
The strength of the relationship between two variables.
Correlation Coefficient
The correlation coefficient quantifies the relationship between two variables. It is a numerical measure of linear association between two variables that takes on values between –1 and +1. Values near +1 indicate a strong positive linear relationship, values near –1 indicate a strong negative linear relationship, and values near zero indicate lack of a linear relationship.
Cost avoidance
This is sometimes a critical element of the business cases for certain types of projects. Cost avoidance is defined as the ability of a new solution to avoid future cost increases in the business. A typical example would be the avoidance of call centre staff costs by introducing a new web based customer service system. The introduction of the new solution enables the company to avoid hiring new staff and taking on their employment costs. Care must be taken in business cases using cost avoidance to ensure that key assumptions are valid and robust.
Cost of poor quality
Kostendoor slechte kwaliteit. De kosten die ontstaan als iets niet in één keer goed gaat. Voorbeelden van deze kosten zijn: uitval, herbewerking, klachtenafhandeling, schadevergoedingen, het productieproces wat stil staatvanwege een storing etc. Er zijn meer dan 20 kostenplekken te definieren vanwege slechte kwaliteit. Dit is waar het bij Six Sigma in eerste instantie om draait, deze kosten omlaag te krijgen.
Critical Customer Requirements (CCR)
A quantifiable and measurable characteristic of the product/service for which targets, available variation and allowable defect rates can be established for customer requirements. Sometimes used instead of CTQ.
Critical Factor
CTQs that cannot fail once they are designed into a product or process. i.e.: The software is Windows XP Compliant is a critical factor.
Critical to Quality (CTQ)
The specific, key characteristics that make a measurable, positive impact on the customer
Crystal Ball TM
A Monte Carlo Simulation package that is heavily used in both Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma
Critical-To-Process characteristics or requirements.
CTQ - Critical to Quality
CTQ sets out the measurable elements of a process that are critical to achieving customer quality and satisfaction. The CTQ measures are designed to ensure that process improvement and innovation projects are fully aligned with those areas that are most valued by customers. Upper and lower specification limits are set on each CTQ measure to ensure that the project team is absolutely clear about the levels required by customers. CTQ measures are typically obtained through VOC and Market Research. Sometimes used instead of CCR.
CTQ Flowdown
A qualitative technique for linking high-level customer CTQs to lower-level design CTQs and Xs.
De KLANT (met hoofdletters) De afnemer van een product of een dienst. De kan een interne of externe partij zijn. De klant is het uitgangpunt, zowel bij Six Sigma als bij Lean Six Sigma.
Customer Satisfaction
A key measure of how far products and services are meeting the requirements of customers. In assessing customer satisfaction it is critical to understand what actually matters to a customer.
Customer Surveys
These are surveys of customers that are designed to gain qualitative and quantitative data on customer requirements. These can be a key input into all types of projects.
CVSM = Complexity Value Stream Map = Complexiteit WaardeStroom Overzicht. Een CVSM is een tool waarbij drie dingen inzichtelijk worden gemaakt: (1) de processtroom (2) informatie over tijd die is besteed (3) Data die laat zien hoeveel verschillende types diensten of productendoor de waardestroom gaan. Het is het middel om duidelijk maken of complexiteit zinvol is of niet.
Cycle time
Is de doorlooptijd vanaf het begin tot het eind van een proces of subproces.