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P Charts
Charts used to plot percent defectives in a sample in case of variable sizes. A defective unit is one that fails to meet the acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects on the unit.
“Level of significance”. It measures the probability that the null hypothesis is correct. In other words it measure the chance that we are willing to take of being wrong when we state the conclusion. The chance you are willing to accept is set by the so-called α-value that is usually set at 5% or 0.05
A constant defining a particular property of the density function of a variable. A numerical characteristic of a population, such as a population mean (x-bar), a population standard deviation (s), a population proportion P, and so on.
Pareto chart
The Pareto chart combines a bar chart with a cumulative distribution. This allows project teams to see whether the Pareto Principle is present in the data (e.g. 80% of issues are described by 20% of the causes). Named after Wilfredo Pareto, a European economist.
Pareto Principle
Simply stated 80% of a task can be achieved by focusing on 20% of the required activities. The Pareto principle focuses attention on the vital key factors.
PICK chart
Een PICK chart is een voorbeeld van een quadrant die in Lean Six Sigma gebruikt wordt om verbetervoorstellen te beoordelen op (on)gemak en baten (laag of hoog). Je hebt te maken met vier uitkomsten per verbetervoorstel: Implement, Possible, Challenge en Kill (PICK)
Poka Yoke
Mistake proofing a process by focusing on potential problems before they occur. This is a Japanese term and method designed to design out potential problems. This is particularly important when it is critical that processes do not fail e.g. a Nuclear Power Plant.
The totality of items under study. For example, e.g. all of the units processed, all of the cycle time of all the possible units delivered to the customer, all of the loans that would be considered within the same process, all of the batches that would be expected to be included in the process. In other words, a group of similar items from which a sample is drawn. Often referred to as the universe.
Power of an Experiment
The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false and accepting the alternate hypothesis when it is true.
The level of accuracy that is applied to a measure. The level of precision should be appropriate to the process being measured e.g. "customer service is good" is not precise but "95.4% of customers were very satisfied with delivery performance" is more precise.
Problem / Opportunity statement
A clear and unambiguous statement of the problem / opportunity that will be addressed by a project. Put simply - what is the problem that the project is trying to address?
Problem solving
The process of determining the cause from a symptom and then choosing an action to improve a process or product.
A method to make or do something that involves a number of steps.
Process capability
This is a capability of a process to deliver a product or service without defects. In simple terms how well a process will perform on an ongoing basis given the current design of the process.
Process Control Chart
Any of a number of various types of graphs upon which data are plotted against specific control limits.
Process Management
The active, on-going systematic management of all business processes and activities to improve business results.
Process Map / Flowchart
A visual analytical tool that is designed to enable project teams to map and analyze processes at differing levels of detail. The Process maps allow key steps to be mapped out to increase the project teams understanding of key flows. Process mapping should also focus on areas such as the number of steps, number of physical handovers and the value of activities. Electronic flowcharting can be created using packages such as Excel, PowerPoint, Visio and iGrafx. Project teams should be careful to focus attention on the right level of detail and critical process measures.
Process measures
Clear measures that unambiguously define the requirements for successful execution of a process
Process Owner
The individual who has responsibility for a specific process. Project teams that are improving or designing new processes must hand over the new process design to a process owner before the project is completed. Process owners should be involved in projects at an early stage to avoid later rework.
Process Re-engineering
See BPR - Business Process Re-engineering.
Process Spread
The range of values which a given process characteristic displays; this particular term most often applies to the range but may also encompass the variance. The spread may be based on a set of data collected at a specific point in time or may reflect the variability across a given amount of time. Also referred to as the Span.
Producer's Risk
Probability of rejecting a lot when, in fact, the lot should have been accepted. You are seeing ghosts. Also referred to as α-risk.
Project Charter
A document that summarizes the key characteristics of any Lean Six Sigma project typically under the following headings: Business Case, Opportunity Statement, Goal Statement, Scope, Project Milestones and Team Selection.
Project Plan
The plan of activities, tasks, timescales and responsibilities for a project. All projects must have a robust plan that is effectively executed. MS Project offers great functionality.
Project portfolio summary
The project portfolio summary report sets out an overall status report for a company's portfolio of improvement projects. The summary screen covers areas such as the number of new ideas, the number of projects by type (e.g. DMAIC) and phase (e.g. Measure). It also includes a summary of overall portfolio Return on Investment (RoI) with a breakdown of expected financial costs and benefits this financial year and in future financial years.
Project prioritisation
The process of prioritising projects within an overall portfolio. There will almost always be more good ideas and projects to execute than a company can implement due to resource and time constraints. The project prioritisation process ensures that the highest priority projects are executed first and that the overall portfolio of projects is balanced across different areas.
Project Sponsor
Responsible for identification and execution of Lean Six Sigma Black Belt projects. Works with Deployment Champions on project prioritisation and selection.
Projects are the vehicle for people to learn the Lean Six Sigma methodology. Projects shall not be fabricated, they need to have real business impact.
Pugh matrix
Een Pugh matrix is een methodiek om verschillende alternatieven tegen elkaar op te wegen. In een schema worden verticaal de criteria en hun wegingsfactor uiteengezet. Horizontaal worden de alternatieven uiteengezet.Voor deze kolommen met alternatievenwordt een kolom de huidige standaard ingevoegd, waaraan voor elk criterium de score nul wordt toegekend.Voor elk ander alternatief worden vervolgens voor de criteria scoresgegeven, variërend van -2 (veel slechterdan de standaard), tot en met +2 (veel beter dan de standaard). Na hetvermenigvuldigen met de wegingsfactoren, en het optellen van de gewogen scores,resulteert een basis om alternatieven te kunnen vergelijken.